Phytochemical and Anti-Inflammatory Studies of Ethanol Extract of Terminalia macroptera Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae) Stem Bark in Rats and Mice
Background: Terminalia macroptera Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae) is a flowering plant used traditionally for the
treatment of various disease conditions including hepatitis, dysentery, piles, edema, fever, gastritis, as aphrodisiac,
applied to sprains and as a cleanser for washing sores.
The aim of the work was to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical properties and anti-inflammatory
activity of the ethanol extract of T. macroptera stem bark.
Material and Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening and quantification was carried out on the extract
using standard phytochemical methods. The ethanol stem bark extract was screened using the carrageenan induced
rat paw edema model, and xylene induced edema model in mice at doses of 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg doses
orally. Lorke’s method was used to study the acute oral toxicity effect.
Results: Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins,
and alkaloids. The total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extract were 164.8±10.37 (GAE/g of dried extract
mg/g) and 193.6±6.37 (QE mg/g) respectively. The result showed that the extract produced a significant (p<0.05)
dose independent inhibition with the maximum inhibition (89.93%) observed at 30 minutes at 50 mg/kg in the
carrageenan induced edema and (49.5%) at 400 mg/kg in xylene induced models. No toxic effect was observed at
4.0g/kg of the extract in rats.
Conclusion: The study showed that the ethanol stem bark extract is a good source of various phytochemicals that
could be responsible for the observed anti-inflammatory activity of the plant.
Keywords: Terminalia macroptera, Anti-inflammatory, Phytochemical, Carrageenan
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