Antimicrobial Activity and Stability of Andrographis paniculata Cream Containing Shea Butter
Background: Creams are semi-solid topical products which are intended to be applied to the skin or mucous membrane. Herbal medicated creams are used for various therapeutic purposes. The antimicrobial properties of Andrographis paniculata leaves have been studied by various researchers.
Objectives: The objective of this study is to formulate and evaluate the effect of shea butter (unrefined and refined) on the antimicrobial activity of Andrographis paniculata cream and also to investigate the physical stability of the cream under different storage temperature.
Methods: Different cream formulations containing 5, 10 and 20% Andrographis paniculata extract and shea butter were produced, physical properties of the cream were evaluated and susceptibility of the cream to Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aureginosa, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans was determined from zones of inhibition produced on an agar plate. Physical stability was done by subjecting the creams to different storage temperatures.
Results: All the cream formulations were homogenous in appearance, soft, smooth, non-greasy and were oil-in-water type emulsion. Viscosity of the creams increased with incorporation of shea butter. The incorporation of shea butter in formulations containing aqueous or methanolic extracts enhanced the antimicrobial activity of the formulations. There was no significant difference between the antimicrobial activities of both extract against all the test organism except for Aspergillus niger in which methanolic extract showed a higher activity which was significantly different (p<0.05). The physical stability of the cream formulations was maintained within 30 days, no changes in colour, texture, and homogeneity.
Conclusion: Inclusion of shea butter synergized the antimicrobial activity of Andrographis paniculata cream.
Keywords: Cream, shea butter, Andrographis paniculata, aqueous extract, methanolic extract.
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